If you travel in Turkmenistan18 km to the west of Ashgabat can be found to be towering Nissa was the capital city of ancient Parthian state. which existed between 1,000 B.C. and 1,000 A .D. In the third century B.C. New Nissa was a capital of Parthian state, and Old Nissa fortress was considered an imperial residence.
Old Nissa was rich in temples and palaces . There was also the treasury, huge wine warehouses there . The f ortifications were 8- 9 meters thick in the bas e and were reinforced by 43 rectangular towers.
During the time when Parthian E mpire was a world power Old Nissa was called Mitridatkert named after King Mitridat I (171-138 B.C.) who ordered to build the city . Later on the ruler s of Parthia transferre d the capital to Minor Asia but the special attitude toward Old Nissa remained : t here were tombs of the ruling Arsakid dynasty members , in times of great feasts t he k ings arrived in Nissa for sacrifice ceremonies .
In the year of 226 Parthia ceased to exist and Artashid, the former representative of Arsakid dynasty founded a new state led by Sasanid dynasty . Hoping to eradicate the memories of everything connected with P arthian rulers he ordered to destroy Old Nissa . Arsakid family place was plundered and turned into ruins. Although it was revived a few centuries later , when Nissa became a part of Arabian caliphate, it did live up to its former power ful position . Today only the finds of archeologists testif y about Mitridatokert’s former majesty – fine horn-shaped ivory vessels ( ritons ), unique documents of the 2nd – 1st centuries B.C. written by means of a brush on clay fragments , amazing white marble sculptures etc.
The latest find in Old Nissa is a unique fresco fragment – a genuine masterpiece of P arthian painting.
By the government decree Nis s a was declared an archeological reserve of state significance is a candidate to be included into the list of “World Legacy” as one of the most interesting historical landmarks of ancient Oriental states.
Nisa, the ancient Nicaea, the capital of Parthaunisa and a sacred city. A royal fortress built in the mid-2nd century Av.JC. fortress at Nisa was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007. Nisa is described by some as one of the first capitals of the Parthians. It was founded by Arsaces I (reigned c. 250 BC – 211 BC), and was reputedly the royal necropolis of the Parthian kings, although it has neither been established that the fortress at Nisa was a royal residence nor a mausoleum.
The ruins of ancient settlement Nissa are located not very far (only 18 km) from the city of Ashgabat in the outskirts of Bagir village. It used to be the capital of Parthia which had existed from the third century B.C. to the third century A.D. The Historical complex includes two archeologic monuments